Microplastics found in human stools worldwide

Researchers monitored a group of participants from eight different countries and found that that every single stool sample tested positive for the presence of microplastic. Nine different types were identified

New research has revealed today (Tuesday, 22 October) that microplastics have been found in the human food chain worldwide after particles made of polypropylene (PP), polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) and others were detected in human stools.

Researchers from the Medical University of Vienna and the Environment Agency Austria monitored a group of participants from countries across the world, including Finland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, the UK and Austria. The results show that every single stool sample tested positive for the presence of microplastic and up to nine different plastic types were identified.


Microplastics are small particles of plastic less than 5mm and are used in various products for specific purposes; as well as being created unintentionally by the breaking down of larger pieces of plastic through weathering, degradation, wear and tear.

Microplastic may impact human health via the GI tract where it could affect the tolerance and immune response of the gut by bioaccumulation or aiding transmission of toxic chemicals and pathogens.

The pilot study was conducted with eight participants from across the globe. Each person kept a food diary in the week leading up to their stool sampling. The diaries showed that all participants were exposed to plastics by consuming plastic wrapped foods or drinking from plastic bottles. None of the participants were vegetarians and six of them consumed sea fish.

The stools were tested at the Environment Agency Austria for 10 types of plastics following a newly developed analytical procedure. Up to nine different plastics, sized between 50 and 500 micrometres, were found, with polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) being the most common. On average, the researchers found 20 microplastic particles per 10g of stool.


Lead researcher Dr. Philipp Schwabl, who presented the findings at the 26th UEG Week, said: “This is the first study of its kind and confirms what we have long suspected, that plastics ultimately reach the human gut. Of particular concern is what this means to us, and especially patients with gastrointestinal diseases.

“While the highest plastic concentrations in animal studies have been found in the gut, the smallest microplastic particles are capable of entering the blood stream, lymphatic system and may even reach the liver. Now that we have first evidence for microplastics inside humans, we need further research to understand what this means for human health.”

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Global plastics production has increased substantially from the 1950s and continues to grow every year. For their many practical characteristics, plastics are pervasive in everyday life and humans are exposed to plastics in numerous ways.

It’s estimated that, through pollution, 2-5 % of all plastics produced end up in the seas. Once in the ocean, plastics are consumed by sea animals and enter the food chain where ultimately, they are likely to be consumed by humans.

Significant amounts of microplastic have been detected in tuna, lobster and shrimp. Beyond that it is highly likely that during various steps of food processing or as a result of packaging food is being contaminated with plastics.

Water purification technology and solutions specialist Bluewater says the study, which provides the first real evidence that microplastics are now inside humans, raises grave concerns about the health implication.

“It’s no secret that microplastics have entered both the human food and water chains,” says President Anders Jacobson. “But their detection now in human beings around the world is deeply concerning and demands urgent research to understand the human health implications.

Believing human ingenuity can be harnessed to develop technology and solutions to tackle plastics pollution, Bluewater has put providing access to pure drinking water to everyone to help stop the need for single-use plastic bottles at the core of its business strategy.

More than one million plastic bottles are produced every 60 seconds, many ending up in the oceans as waste that breaks down into microplastics then consumed by sea animals.

Bluewater-patented second-generation reverse osmosis technology dubbed SuperiorOsmosis™ removes a whole spectrum of waterborne contaminants, including microplastics. Bluewater Pro water purifiers were used at every stop-over of the recent Volvo Ocean Race to help ensure pure drinking water without microplastics was served to visitors, which meant almost 400,000 plastic bottles were avoided.

“Plastics touch humans every day in multiple ways but we haven’t a clue what the long-term health consequences will be from consuming microplastics that will enter our bloodstream, lymphatic system and liver,” adds Anders.

“We owe it to future generations to find out what that exposure means.”


12 easy ways to use less plastic

Plastic has become a bad word in households across the country and, when you really look, it’s everywhere. Luckily, there are some easy things you can do to lessen or eliminate your use of disposable plastic altogether. Here are top 10 simple tips:

  • Use a refillable or travel coffee mug rather than ordering takeaway drinks in a disposable cup. Many places (such as Costa) already offer an incentive, such as a percentage discount, for using your own. There’s a great range available from Thermos (pictured below).

    Thermos Stainless King Travel Mug
    Thermos Stainless King Travel Mug
  • Invest in a reusable water bottle for using during yoga, at the gym and in the office rather than buying plastic bottles every time
  • Keep some real cutlery and a glass in your drawer at work so you’re not caught out needing a disposable setfork-2462375_1920
  • Use only real plates or biodegradable alternatives, such as bamboo for the kids. We love this bamboo Vintage Apple Lunchbox (available in lots of other styles and prints) from former dotcomgiftshop Rex London.

    Vintage Apple Bamboo Lunch Box (2)
    Vintage Apple Lunchbox, Rex London 
  • Switch to biodegradable baby wipes, nappy sacks and re-usable nappies. There’s a great range here by Naty 
  • Buy only wooden toys where you can. We’re avid browsers of the Wooden Toy Shop.
  • Make sure you take your re-usable bags to the supermarket

    Bags for life at Asda 
  • Try to buy loose fruit and vegetables and products in sustainable packaging at the supermarket or, even better, subscribe to a local, organic veg box
  • Buy products in glass jars or bottles, or have fun making your own. jam-428094_960_720
  • Make sure you recycle and compost your food waste
  • Switch to bamboo cotton buds. Check out Surfers Against Sewage to buy.
  • Never flush anything down the toilet other than toilet roll. Remember, what goes in the ocean goes in you.sunset-3300466_1920

The big plastic clean-up – are big brands and supermarkets doing enough?

Nestle today (10 April) announced that it will “aim for 100% recyclable or reusable packaging by 2025”. It’s the latest in a long line of big names to pledge their commitment to reduce plastic waste, which makes up around 90% of all rubbish floating on the ocean’s surface and kills 1 million seabirds and 100,000 marine mammals every year.

Iceland became the first major retailer at the start of the year to promise to eliminate plastic packaging within the next five years to help put an end to plastic pollution, which has become so large scale, it will take thousands of years and significant investment to clean up or at least offset its effects.

Asda followed suit in February by pledging to scrap 5p carrier bags across all its stores by the end of 2018, stop using plastic drinking straws in its cafes, and introduce reusable drinks cups by 2019. Asda has also promised to reduce its own brand packaging by 10%.

But Greenpeace UK says its isn’t enough.

Louise Edge, senior oceans campaigner at Greenpeace UK, said: “As the largest food and drink company in the world Nestle should be leading on sustainable packaging, but their new commitments lack ambition. Greater transparency, a higher proportion of recycled content, and support for recycling are all welcome, but Nestle needs to do more to move the needle towards the elimination of problem plastic.

“A rubbish truck load of plastic enters the ocean every minute and huge multinationals selling plastic products need to play a bigger part in turning the tide. Nestle should remove non-recyclable plastic far sooner than 2025, and phase out all single-use plastic packaging.”

While your plastic footprint may not be as significant as the big brands and large retailers, there are lots of ways you can reduce your use of disposable plastic too.

Where does the money go?

Ever wondered where the proceeds from the 5p Scottish carrier bag tax go? We caught up with some of the supermarkets to find out.

Before phasing them out, Aldi shared more than £4.5m from the sales of its 5p carrier bags with the RSPB, Teenage Cancer Trust, Farm Africa, the Red Cross and smaller regional charities.

Lidl stopped the sale of single-use carrier bags in store from July 2017. Prior to that, the supermarket supported its national charity partners, Clic Sargent, the NSPCC, and Keep Britain Tidy.